Selected Leadership Bibliography

Argyris, Chris. Flawed Advice and the Management Trap: How Managers Can Know When They’re Getting Good Advice and When They’re Not. Oxford University Press; New York, 2000.
Argyris notes that most management consulting advice doesn’t work: Too abstract, inconsistent. Regardless of what they get from consultants, managers ultimately resort to five typical behaviors:

  • State messages that are inconsistent
  • Act as if a message is not inconsistent
  • Make the inconsistency undiscussable
  • Make the undiscussability an undiscussable
  • Act as if you’re not doing any of the above.

How to break the pattern? Emphasize facts and actionable data! Don’t be influenced by the power or positions of the people involved.

Bass, Bernard. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. Macmillan, Inc., 1990. This study of 176 military officers is different from the others in that Bass used factor analysis of questionnaire responses to identify two types of leaders: “transformational” and “transactional.” Transformational leaders encourage subordinates to perform beyond expectations, whereas transactional leaders exchange valued things (reward for good work) to increase productivity. Bass concluded that charisma by far explained most of the transformation leader’s power to influence subordinates to perform beyond expectations.

Bennis, Warren and Burt Nanus. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (The Four Keys of Effective Leadership). Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.; New York, 1985.
In this foundation study of corporate America’s most critical issue, leadership guru Warren Bennis and co-author Nanus reveal four key principles every manager should know: Attention Through Vision, Meaning Through Communication, Trust Through Positioning, and The Deployment of Self. They highlight many common characteristics of leaders (e.g., traits such as possessing and sharing a vision).

Bennis, Warren and Burt Nanus. Leaders: Their Strategies for Taking Charge. Harper Business, 1997, Bennis and Nanus studied 90 chief executive officers recognized for successfully leading their organizations thorough “spastic and turbulent conditions.” Their organizations not only survived unsettling period, they thrived.

Bennis, Warren. On Becoming a Leader. Addison-Wesley; New York, 1989.
This book contains what we call the “chart of distinction,” labeled “Leading and Managing Are Different.” Bennis describes the differences, but he also makes it clear that the effective executive learns to practice both sets of skills.

Blanchard, Kenneth H., John P. Carlos, Alan Randolph. Empowerment Takes More than a Minute. Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc.; San Francisco, 1996.
Employees struggle with everyday work because of motivational problems as well as ability problems. Blanchard et al show how to get teams to respond.

Blanchard, Kenneth H. and Paul Hersey. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall. 1972.
Blanchard and his co-author explain situational leadership approaches. See also Fournies, F. F. Coaching for Improved Performance, 1978, on coaching, contracting and “making heroes.”

Bryson, John M. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Development, Jossey-Bass, 1988. This book contains sections on the following topics: Understanding the dynamics of strategic planning; key steps in thinking and acting strategically; implementing strategic planning successfully; and resources for strategic planning.

Burt, Martha R.; Harrell, Adele V.; Newmark, Lisa C.; Aron, Laudan Y.; Jacobs, Lisa K.; and others. Evaluation Guidebook for Projects Funded by STOP Formula Grants under the Violence against Women Act. Urban Institute; National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. December 1997.
The Urban Institute shares a process and a toolset for re-designing human services agencies and service delivery systems for clarity of purpose and measurable success. They call such a program design a “Logic Model,” which is simply a logical description of how a program or project is supposed to work to achieve the results (mission and client outcomes) it was created to achieve. This guidebook is an essential primer for evaluation in the real world, where we must describe intended outputs and outcomes, then capture process and performance data before we can legitimately address more sophisticated evaluations, such as impact analysis and cost-benefit analysis.

Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change. Simon & Schuster; New York, 1989.
In this groundbreaker Covey says that true success originates with a balance between personal and professional effectiveness. The book is a manual for performing better in both arenas. The anecdotes are taken from family situations as much as from business challenges. To adopt these seven habits, Covey says you need a “paradigm shift”–a change in perception and interpretation of how the world works. He walks you through this shift, which changes how you perceive productivity, time management, positive thinking, and developing your “proactive muscles” (acting with initiative rather than reacting).

Covey, Stephen R. Principle-Centered Leadership. Simon & Schuster; New York, 1991.
Covey answers such dilemmas as dealing with tremendous change, unleashing creativity and energy in the midst of pressure, finding balance among personal, family, and professional lives. He sees leadership as a long-term, “inside-out” approach to developing people and organizations. The key to dealing with these challenges is recognizing a principle-centered core within ourselves. That leads us to a new understanding of quality and productivity, and to an appreciation of personal and professional relationships.

Cribbin, James J. Leadership: Strategies for Organizational Effectiveness, AMACOM, 1981.
This is the one best book on leadership that Dick Grimm says he has ever used. It provides a great knowledge base for leadership, stemming from the research. It contains chapters on understanding your organization and human behavior; selecting the right leadership behavior; Win-Win leadership strategies; organizational and interactive approaches to motivation. There are also sections on capitalizing on group resources; communicating with impact; making change productive; increasing your creativity; managing stress; and leadership values.

Deming, Edwards W. Out of the Crisis. MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986.
(review is under development)

Drucker, Peter F. Managing for Results. Harper & Row; New York, 1964.
There are actually three foundation works for the executive and manager by Drucker, “the dean of this country’s business and management philosophers.” Managing for Results was the first book to explain business strategy: Drucker showed how existing businesses have to focus on opportunities rather than problems to be effective. (Opportunities bring growth and performance.) Innovation and Entrepreneurship analyzed the challenges and opportunities of America’s new entrepreneurial economy. This practical book explains what established businesses, public service institutions, and new ventures have to know, learn, and do to construct the successful business of tomorrow. In The Effective Executive, Drucker discusses five practices for leadership effectiveness. Addressing both business and government, he offers fresh insights into old and seemingly obvious situations. Together these three books have sold over a million copies.

Drucker, Peter F. Managing the Non-Profit Organization: Principles and Practices. HarperCollins Publishers; New York, 1990.
Drucker gives examples and explanations of mission, leadership, resources, marketing, goals, people development, and decision-making. He includes interviews with nine experts that address key issues in the non-profit sector. He answers questions about hospital administration as he presents the tasks, responsibilities and practices required for organizational success. (See also “Managing for Success: A comparison of the Private and Public Sectors,” K. A. Gold, Public Administration Review, November/December 1982.)

Felkins, P.K, Chakiris, B.J., & Chakiris, K.N. Change Management: A Model for Effective Organizational Performance. Quality Resources, 1993.
Change Management shows you how to coordinate your organization’s energy and resources to bring about integrated change and foster greater competitiveness. Felkins et al. present a practical, competency-based model that illustrates how change can be continuously facilitated through teamwork, collaborative data collection and analysis, and action planning. The authors’ approach is unique because it focuses on facilitating change through a process of consultation, partnership, and teaming rather than through traditional command and control.

Frame, J. Davidson. Managing Projects in Organizations: How to Make the Best Use of Time, Techniques, and People. Jossey-Bass, 1988.
This book is an often-quoted and referenced resource. It contains the following chapters:
Understanding the process of managing projects; How the realities of organizational life affect projects; Capable people: the heart of every project; Structuring project teams and building cohesiveness; Making certain a project is based on a clear need; Specifying what the project should accomplish; Keeping the project on course: tools and techniques for planning and control; Handling special problems and complex projects; Achieving results: the key to success as a project manager.

Garfield, Charles. Peak Performers. William Morrow & C.; New York, 1986.
In reporting the results of his 18-year study of peak performers in business and industry, Garfield concluded, “…extraordinary achievers are ordinary people who have found ways to make a major impact.”

Hammer, Michael and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. HarperCollins Publishers; New York, 1993.
Hammer and his co-author stress one main idea: Leaders must think, plan and organize around organizational processes instead of organizational structure (hierarchies) or tasks. The authors suggest we think about what the customer is interested in (i.e., the outcomes of the process), more than about our internal issues – our departments, tasks, and products.

Hammer, Michael. Beyond Reengineering: How the Process-Centered Organization is Changing Our Work and Our Lives. HarperCollins Publishers; New York, 1996.
Hammer explores the implications of leading a customer-driven, process-centered organization. How do customer outcomes drive the way we manage production, organize our structure, and develop new strategies? Hammer envisions a new business model, where we focus on work processes (i.e., sequences of work), rather than on simple tasks. In the process-centered organization workers are professionals, not pieces of the machinery. They perform broad, self-managed functions in process-centered teams. They focus on customers, not bosses. Managers support them, not control them. They are paid for results, not just for showing up.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. The Motivation to Work (2nd Ed.). John Wiley & Sons; New York, 1959.
It was Herzberg’s 1959 book The Motivation to Work, written in collaboration with two research colleagues that established him as an original thinker about the mainsprings of human activity in the workplace. The Motivation to Work was based on intensive questioning of two hundred Pittsburgh engineers and accountants, asking them to analyze times when they felt exceptionally good and exceptionally bad about their work. The book was the first to discover that satisfaction and dissatisfaction with one’s employment arose from quite different factors and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors. Herzberg posited that KITA – the externally imposed attempt by management to “install a generator” in the employee – has been demonstrated to be a total failure. The absence of such “hygiene” factors as good supervisor-employee relations and liberal fringe benefits can make a worker unhappy, but their presence will not make him want to work harder. Essentially meaningless changes in the tasks that workers are assigned to do have not accomplished the desired objective either. It is Herzberg’s theory that the only way to motivate the employee is to give him challenging work in which he can assume responsibility. According to Herzberg, as jobs become “enriched,” the need for much mundane job supervision disappears, and hitherto unsatisfying supervisory tasks can themselves be enriched by enlarging their responsibilities on a more managerial level.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. The Change Masters. Simon & Schuster; New York, 1983, 1985.
Kanter studied the organizational and personal factors that enable some individuals to be highly effective in inducing change.

Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton. The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action. Harvard Business School Press; Boston, MA, 1996.
Kaplan and Norton encourage managers to mobilize their people to fulfill the company’s mission. More than just another performance measurement system, their approach explains how to align the energies, abilities, and specific knowledge of the organization behind the achievement of long-term, balanced goals. This is not just a balanced measurement program – it is a balanced management program. The authors clarify the inter-dependence of performance in the areas of strategic and tactical planning, executive and other levels of personnel, customer focus, internal business processes, and organizational learning.

Kaufman, R. Strategic Planning Plus: An Organizational Guide. ScottForesman Professional Books; 1991.
Strategic Planning Plus covers strategic planning at three levels – micro, macro, and mega – and describes, in detail, how to create a strategic plan to identify and meet the needs of any organization. In this book, Kaufman presents guidance on how to identify the direction an organization must take, a six-step process for identifying and solving organizational problems, ideas for determining how to achieve desired results, and methods for evaluating progress and revising strategic plans. Strategic Planning Plus also provides a variety of aids including flowcharts, checklists, guidelines, procedures, and case studies.

Kouzes, James M. and Barry Z. Posner. Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It. Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.; San Francisco, 1993.
The authors demonstrate why leadership above all relies on “relationship.” Credibility is the cornerstone for trust. The authors reveal the six key disciplines and related practices that strengthen a leader’s capacity for developing and sustaining credibility: a) discovering yourself; b) appreciating your constituents and their diversity; c) affirming shared values; d) developing capacity; e) serving a purpose; and f) sustaining hope.

Kouzes, James M. and Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge: How to Keep Getting Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations. Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.; San Francisco, 1987.
The book is filled with good ideas and suggestions for taking a leadership role in any organization. Five practices: Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart provide a game plan for leaders to positively influence the behavior of others.

Lawler, Edward E. Motivation in Work Organizations. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.; Belmont, CA, 1973. (review is under development)

Lawler, Edward E. From the Ground Up: Six Principles for Building the New Logic Corporation. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996.
For any manager or executive who’s had it with quick-fix approaches to organizational change, From the Ground Up offers a “big picture” view of how to integrate the best of proven design strategies to create the successful organizations of tomorrow. Lawler is a pioneer in high performance work systems. He draws from decades of experience to describe the organization of the future, linking leadership through people to strategy, structure, and systems in this guidebook to managing sustainable change.

McGregor, Douglas. The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hill; New York, 1960.
This seminal work challenges traditional “command and control” management. It’s an optimistic book, overflowing with ideas on releasing creativity and self-direction of the entire organization. McGregor is one of the first leadership gurus to profess a faith in the leadership abilities and effectiveness of common workers. (The idea of asking employees to help evaluate themselves is his, as well as the well known Theory X/Theory Y concept.) McGregor sums it up in this sentence: “The distinctive potential contribution of the human being… at every level of the organization, stems from his capacity to think, to plan, to exercise judgment, to be creative, to direct and control his own behavior.” (pp 114).

O’Toole, James. Vanguard Management. Berkley Publishing Group, 1987. By polling more than 200 informed professionals, O’Toole identified 16 companies as the best-managed large corporations in America. He then interviewed the leaders of these corporations and observed them in action in their offices and factories.

Patterson, K., Grenny, J., McMillan, R. & Switzler, A. The Balancing Act: Mastering the Competing Demands of Leadership. Thomson Executive Press, 1996.
As this book’s subtitle suggests, the goal of the authors is to help leaders balance the complex and competing demands of employees, shareowners, customers, families, government agencies, communities – and anybody else who wants a piece of their hide. The Balancing Act is a practical guide to mastering the challenges and complexities of change, helping erstwhile leaders become a compelling and vital force in their organization’s future. In this book, you will discover how to maximize your long-term competitive advantage by being able to predict and measure your organization’s future performance, master new ways of analyzing and improving productivity across six crucial areas of influence frequently overlooked in organizations, and mold the actions and attitudes of your customers, employees, owners and others to net positive results.

Peters, Thomas J. and Robert H. Waterman, Jr. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies. Warner Books; New York, 1988.
To discover the secrets of the art of management, Peters and Waterman studied more than 43 successful American companies. The companies specialized in a number of areas: consumer goods, high technology, and services. What they discovered: Regardless of differences, effective companies shared eight basic principles of management that anyone can use on the way to success.

Peters, Thomas J. and Nancy K. Austin. A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference. Warner Books; New York, 1989.
The authors in effect say ‘Here is what you need to know about the crucial elements of success: constant innovation, staying in touch with customers, encouraging the contributions of everyone in the company, and maintaining the integrity that is basic to leadership. These are the secrets of building excellence.’ Tom Peters writes passionately about focusing on customers, employees, and other stakeholders to create great results.

Schein, Edgar H. Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development. Addison-Wesley; New York, 1988.
The concept of process consultation and how it separates itself from other schools of consultation are best summed up by Schein himself, “…it is best not to dictate to others but to help them discover what they need and then helpfully steer them toward that.” The consultant (and the leader) must be a listener first and only then, a guide

Scholtes, P. R. The Team Handbook. Joiner and Associates; , 1988.
Scholtes explains the “Laws” of Change. See also Scott, C. D. and Jaffe, D. T. Managing Organizational Change. Crisp Publications; Menlo Park, CA, 1989.

Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization. Doubleday; New York, 1990.
Senge is the founder of the Center for Organizational Learning at MIT’s Sloan School of Management. In 1987 he first saw the potential of “learning organizations” that use “systems thinking” as the core of their management philosophy. Senge lays out the concept in this primer, written for leaders wishing to integrate the concept with their corporate culture. Many readers are “true believers.” Senge’s integrated corporate framework is structured around four concepts:

  • “Personal Mastery” – a commitment to personal growth and learning.
  • “Mental Models” – The beliefs that people hold about the world, change, and reality that may be impeding the change process or limiting growth.
  • “Shared Vision” – Overcoming mental models and bringing concerns and beliefs out into the open, so members of an organization may work toward a common goal.
  • “Team Learning” – Building on shared vision, by aligning goals, dreams and desires, in a manner such that a group of people function as a whole to achieve a common goal.

The book also identifies a number of systems archetypes (e.g., the “snowball effect,” “balancing loops,” “growth and under-investment,” “fixes that fail,” “limits to growth,” “shifting the burden”). These general models describe scenarios leaders find both common and challenging.

Van de Ven, A.H. & Ferry, D.L. Measuring and Assessing Organizations. John Wiley & Sons; New York, 1980.
Measuring and Assessing Organizations presents a practical and scientifically valid approach for assessing the performance of complex organizations. Basing their examination on the results of a seven-year longitudinal research program called Organizational Assessment (OA), the authors describe, evaluate, and propose a set of measurement instruments and process guidelines for understanding and improving work in organizations. They demonstrate substantial support for the theories underlying the instruments and suggest specific areas where improvements can be made – thus helping researchers, managers, consultants, and practitioners to resolve problems in the design and performance of any organization.

Walters, Jonathan. Measuring up! Governing’s Guide to Performance Measurement for Geniuses and Other Public Managers. Governing Books, Inc.; Washington, D. C., 1998.
Walters is a management editor at Governing magazine. This is a hands-on, user-friendly, somewhat irreverent guide to the management technique known as performance measurement for federal, state and local government public managers. It’s a book Performance Vistas highly recommends to all its performance management clients.

Wheatley, Margaret J. Leadership and the New Science: Discovering Order in a Chaotic World. Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc.; San Francisco, 1999.In this mind-stretching work Wheatley thinks “outside the box” for lessons in leadership. Musing about the manner with which scientific principles might affect leadership, she explores the implications of quantum physics, chaos theory, biology and chemistry for living systems, such as organizations and workplace behavior. For example, she uses recent discoveries in biology and chemistry as metaphors to explain the need for disequilibrium as systems grow, survive and thrive in a changing universe.

Weaver, Richard G. and John D. Farrell. Managers as Facilitators: A Practical Guide to Getting Work Done in a Changing Workplace. Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc.; San Francisco, 1997.
The authors present a new model of facilitation that focuses on getting the work done. Facilitation skills are becoming crucial for leaders in team-based organizations. The book is a practical guide for leaders who accomplish results through their people. Tables and figures clearly illustrate the principles. The Quick Fix guide at the end of the book offers pragmatic solutions to common problems at work. (See also “Handling Group and Organizational Conflict.” The 1977 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. University Associates. pp. 20-20A.)

Woodward, Harry & Buchholz, Steve. Aftershock: Helping People through Corporate Change. John Wiley and Sons; New York, 1987.
This is a foundation resource on change management. Aftershock is a practical, hands-on-guide to dealing with the often-overlooked human side of organizational change. Managers and supervisors get a set of change-oriented tactics and skills they can use to minimize the people “breakage” that often accompanies change. The authors describe specific solutions for dealing with just about every problem that can accompany changes in an organization, from wage freezes to morale breakdown.

Zigarmi, Patricia, Drea Zigarmi, and Kenneth H. Blanchard. Leadership and the One-Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Leadership. William Morrow and Company; New York, 1985.
Situational leadership is not a fad! In Management Challenges for the 21st Century (1999) Peter Drucker notes that in spite of all the searching for the key leadership skill (“the one best way to manage”), one such method (that ‘silver bullet’) does not exist. Effective leadership adapts to the differences in unique situations. The book goes well beyond the well-worn notion of “different strokes for different folks.” Becoming a situational leader involves:

  • Starting with goals that are clear to both leaders and contributors.
  • Working with people to identify “competence” and “commitment” to accomplish those goals.
  • Contracting with individuals on key tasks, and deciding together which leadership style will best match the situation.
  • Following through to provide the agreed-upon leadership until there is either enough progress or the lack of progress warrants a change in styles.

Despite the “leadership” title, the book addresses one-on-one supervision methods. A very practical presentation of situational management.

Don’t Overlook the Importance of References

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