Targeted Community Crime Reduction: Key Documents Library

This library stocks a number of important documents useful for managing or replicating a Targeted Community Crime Reduction Project (TCCRP). They are free to users, but please note that all are owned by TN OCJP, which requires users to cite the source of any documents used outside the grant program. NOTE:  Doug Bailey, President of Performance Vistas (PVI), was instrumental in helping TN OCJP plan for and conduct this multi-year project. PVI is hosting this library temporarily so that TCCRP partners may have easy access to these documents.

Summary:  Tennessee’s criminal justice planning agency (OCJP) is stimulating local innovations for reducing violent crime by funding creative approaches in seven mid-sized cities: Clarksville, Cleveland, Columbia, Jackson, Johnson City, Kingsport, and Murfreesboro Tennessee.  Communities are joining with local police in primary prevention, neighborhood revitalization, enforcement and offender intervention initiatives, and they are circulating data on results to encourage sustained investment and replication by other cities.

What led to the project? A decade of predictable sub-grants can foster a sense of “entitlement” in local law enforcement, and that mentality works against innovation in crime reduction.  To stimulate new ideas for fighting violent and drug-related crime locally, Tennessee’s Office of Criminal Justice Programs (OCJP) is using data to concentrate resources on local crime reduction. OCJP is designing projects to produce measurable results for replication, while insisting that communities work together where they usually depend on enforcement alone.

How the project was designed and launched:  During the 2010 strategic planning cycle, OCJP analyzed crime and demographic data, identifying cities with higher-than-average rates of murder, assault, rape, and other violent crimes. Dwindling resources forced OCJP to target mid-size communities.  Histories of collaboration gave these seven cities a head start, but local leaders had to form their teams and their strategies before the funding flowed, favoring local investment.  OCJP provided TA on measuring outcomes, to ensure the strategies that worked would be replicable.  OCJP monitors the projects and data, negotiating corrective action when necessary.  OCJP believes in “learning-from-doing.”

Where’s the novelty?  OCJP targeted grant funds to seven multi-year demonstration projects with rigorous logic models (i.e., project designs).  It required strategies for prevention/ revitalization, enforcement, and offender intervention. Community organizations, residents, treatment providers and the courts would share the burden with police departments.  The cities would have to leverage existing grants and budgets to ensure the reach of their projects.    If the targeted cities would sustain what worked with project funding, other cities might adopt these strategies, too.  But high-end outcome measurement would have to be convincing about what works in real world situations, so that other cities would recognize how to do business differently. The state would factor the successes into long term priorities for future statewide funding.

How effective is the approach? The projects are documenting success. They expect violent crime to decline in the targeted neighborhoods in the longer term, although the increased attention in high crime zones in the short term is demonstrating increases in arrests:

  1. Prevention/Revitalization:  Gang resistance education, Positive Action curricula, and social skills-building approaches are raising post-test scores among grade schoolers. Schools are reporting reductions in bullying and assault incidents.  Residents are showing greater understanding of housing codes and an improved willingness to engage local government in reducing disorder; they say they’re reclaiming their neighborhoods from blight.  Community- and school-oriented policing are increasing trust in police officers.  Such changes should reduce juvenile petitions for violence, substance abuse and suspensions in schools, and blight in targeted areas.
  2. Enforcement:  Agencies are using crime mapping and community policing tactics such as COMSTAT and DDACTS to concentrate their forces where the need is greatest. Increasing the number of arrests and partnering with probation and parole officers have been associated elsewhere with reduced crime in “hot spots,” and the projects expect the positive effects on violent and drug-related crime incidents in their own communities.  Business leaders are learning how to prevent burglaries and when to report suspicious activity. Residents are reporting less fear of crime. Such changes should accompany reduced rates of violent crime in the longer run.
  3. Offender Intervention:  Out-patient treatment is reducing the incidence of substance abuse, and focusing patrols is expected to reduce probation violations among teens.  Job readiness programs are increasing employment skills for adults, and offenders are showing they can get and keep jobs — the jobs that can keep them from re-offending. Better coping skills are also helping participants remain drug-free. Such changes may reduce the rates of re-arrest among program graduates.

What’s the significance for other cities and states? The projects’ mayors and police chiefs have:

  • Focused funds on narrow targets of opportunity: Making better use of demographic and socio-economic data and geo-coding software produces the greatest “return” on crime reduction efforts.
  • Tailored strategies to fit their communities:  Prevention partners (e.g., boys and girls clubs), parents, homeowners, neighborhood groups, schools, treatment providers, and local universities placed safety above their desire for temporary grant money, benefiting the entire community.
  • Worked out practical solutions:  For example, confidentiality was blocking referrals from the juvenile court to diversion, hindering rehabilitation with participants. Probation figured out a way to share the needed information, and re-arrests of participants are expected to decline.
  • Measured results:  Establishing baselines for neighborhood crime, resident perceptions of safety, and the behaviors of offenders made change management possible.  University evaluators are surveying residents about changes and tracking crime indicators.

Violent and drug-related crime (e.g., prostitution, theft, gangs, blight), mistrust of the police, and indifference to the conditions fostering crime are universal public safety issues. This project shows how to break out of old enforcement-centered attention to crime, away from “business-as-usual” to “what works.”

  • High risk, mid-size cities serve as demonstration sites, showing other cities how small investments in new methods can maximize the impact on crime.
  • Concentrated funding is a good way to show what adequate resources can do to reduce violent crime in small areas experiencing much of the violent crime.
  • Local leaders need structure, flexibility, tools and support to design their own approaches. The state must facilitate local planning.
  • The longest-lasting changes come from redirecting local resources to the existing infrastructure (e.g., re-focusing police manpower and other city resources will last longer than programs funded by short-term grants).
  • Over the long term state grants can “seed” cycles of innovation to address what’s important statewide.

How might the results transfer to others?  OCJP encourages technology-sharing and problem-solving.  OCJP used what it learned in four cities to start projects in cities five and six, then focused those lessons in the seventh city.  In 2012 the project shared results through a statewide conference; another is planned for September 2013 when four of the grants have ended. We are hoping to build momentum by encouraging an association of targeted crime reduction projects to sustain itself. OCJP is already publishing the data on levels of activity and outcome data are being compiled.  Meanwhile, OCJP supports the project teams that educate local leaders about what’s worth sustaining.  Other elements believed to be attractive, especially for smaller communities:

  1. Real collaboration:  Working out practical challenges while maintaining key players, funded or not.
  2. Remaining flexible while replicating approaches found in the literature to fit a community’s resources.
  3. Experience designing strategies for good outcome measurement, especially for short-term changes in skills and attitudes, as crime trends will not change overnight.


7 TCCRP Projects: Key Logic Model Elements

Project Abstracts for Clarksville, Cleveland, Columbia, Jackson, Johnson City, Kingsport and Murfreesboro (tbd)

Clarksville Project Performance Data

Cleveland Project Performance Data

Columbia Project Performance Data

Jackson Project Performance Data

Johnson City Project Performance Data

Kingsport Project Performance Data

Murfreesboro Project Performance Data

Strategic Project Planning: Designing your TCCR Project

Strategic Project Planning: Selecting Strategies, Goals and Objectives (Training Session #2 for Johnson City)

Handout #2: Gantt Chart shows schedule of project start-up and initiation

Handout #3: Training “Primer” with Important Concepts and Definitions

Handout #4: Logical Flow of Project Planning Process


Handout #6: George Mason University’s Evidence-Based Policing Matrix

Handout #7: How to Conduct a Search for the Best-Fitting EB Strategies

and Competitor Monitoring

Scott Buresh is the CEO of Medium Blue Search Engine Marketing, which was recently named the number one search engine optimization firm in the world by PromotionWorld. Scott articles have appeared in numerous publications, including ZDNet, WebProNews, MarketingProfs, and Search Engine Guide. Medium Blue is an Atlanta search engine optimization company with local and national clients.

Scott Buresh

When a company undertakes a search engine optimization program, whether it is performed in house or outsourced to an SEO service, most of the attention (and rightly so) is focused on the company website. This is the one aspect where there is a feeling of control a website is released into the wild, the company will have to see how its site fares against all the other websites out there, whether the other sites are using ethical SEO tactics or not.

Apart from changes made to the company website, the assumption is often wholesale jerseys that the company and, if it is using one, its SEO service, has zero control over what appears in search engine results. However, this is not usually the case. Often, you or your SEO service can have a direct effect on search engine results by monitoring your competitors and reporting them to the major search engines when the SEO techniques used on their site fall outside what is popularly referred to as ethical SEO. (Please note that while I believe that the word is tossed around too often, SEO has become the standard phrase to describe white hat techniques, and so it is the phrase I use throughout the article.)To start with, let define competitors. Almost every company has at least a handful of other companies that it considers to be primary competitors ones that sell the same products and services, that are of similar size, and so on. It is important that the SEO efforts (or lack thereof) of these competitors, whether they are using ethical SEO techniques or not, be monitored on a routine basis. If they have not hired an SEO service of their own, or if they have not started doing SEO in house at all, you will have peace of mind knowing that the use of this channel, for the moment, is yours. If your competitors begin an SEO campaign, with or without an outside SEO service, you can learn much about their sales and marketing tactics by evaluating the keyphrases that they target. And you can also investigate whether they are using ethical SEO practices in their campaign.

Your Online Competitors

It important to keep in mind that it is unlikely that searchers are going to decide only between you and the primary competitors you have listed. They are going to consider any company that matches their particular needs and that shows up for their search term. This is why your criteria for a competitor online should broaden to encompass any company that offers products or services like yours that outranks you for any of your targeted keyphrases. Search engine optimization is still a very new concept to most companies. Even the most respected companies can make mistakes in this arena, either by choosing the wrong SEO service, or by trying to avoid hiring an SEO service altogether by bringing it in house with well intentioned but unqualified people. For example, BMW German site was recently removed temporarily from the Google index for using doorway pages that is not considered an ethical SEO practice. It stands to reason that your competitors are also not immune to violations.

Bad Firms

There are very notable examples of otherwise smart and established companies hiring an SEO service that put them in a worse situation than before they pursued SEO getting their site removed from major search engines for violating the engine terms of service, for example. Not long ago, there was a well publicized example where most of the clients of a Las Vegas SEO service were penalized. Almost all of the clients claimed that they were not informed that the firm was not practicing ethical SEO and that they were therefore at risk.

SEO firms are generally divided into two camps called Hats (those that use ethical SEO practices and will never knowingly violate a search engine terms of service) and those called Hats (those that do not use ethical SEO practices and that will attempt to unravel the latest algorithms and exploit any loopholes wholesale jerseys to achieve rankings at any cost). Neither approach is invalid is not against the law to violate the terms of service of a search engine. Moreover, black hat techniques can be quite effective. The problem with approaching SEO from a strictly technical mindset is that the strategies employed, such as the keyphrases targeted, will not necessarily be in line with the goals of the marketing and sales departments. In addition, an IT resource will usually approach SEO from a purely technical wholesale cheap jerseys standpoint, without being aware of ethical SEO practices, and this can lead to trouble. This may be somewhat controversial, especially to any SEO service or webmaster that uses tactics forbidden by the search engines terms of service. However, many white hat SEO service firms consider it an obligation to their clients to routinely monitor the sites of any competitor found on the engines to be sure it is using ethical SEO techniques.

There is a reason that every major search engine has a form to report sites who do not use ethical SEO tactics and who violate the terms of service so that these sites can be subsequently penalized or removed. Spam filters cannot catch all violations without also removing a large number of good sites. Search engines rely on their users to help them to keep their indexes clean and free of sites not using ethical SEO tactics. There are many techniques to spam an engine too many to list. However, a good SEO service not only knows what all of these techniques are but knows how to identify them when it sees them so they can be reported to the engine accurately.

The End Result

Business is business, and your interests often run directly counter to that of your competitors. When you report a website that is not using ethical SEO, it is very likely that it will be removed. This means there is one less company that you need to worry wholesale cheap jerseys about in the online arena, at least for the time being. If the site in question outranked yours, you also get the added benefit of seeing your rankings improve as the violating pages are removed of course, that you are using ethical SEO techniques and steering clear of violations yourself, or you may be reported by a competitor of yours or its SEO service!

The engine also benefits from users reporting violations. Engines do not like people trying to trick their indexes, since there might then be pages showing up for particular search terms that are not actually relevant to those terms. Clearly, search engines understand this benefit the engines thought they could weed out all the spam themselves, they would not provide a reporting system. Supporting such a system, after all, is not free. Real people employed by the engine have to visit the offending pages to confirm that they are not using ethical SEO tactics.

In the notable example cited earlier of the firm that got most of its clients penalized, the owner of the SEO service in question was quoted as saying, can kiss my ass. This is the Wild Wild West. He may be right it is the Wild Wild West. But there are a whole bunch of new sheriffs in town they are wearing white hats.Articles Connexes:

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